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first a few great BIOPHILIC DESIGN resources...

Kellert, S. R., Heerwagen, J., & Mador, M. L.

Biophilic Design: The Theory, Science, and Practice of Bringing Buildings to Life.

Alexander, C. The Nature of Order: An Essay on the Art of Building and the Nature of the Universe, Book 1 - The Phenomenon of Life

A link to all of Terrapin Bright Green's Publications

Kaplan, R., Kaplan, S., & Ryan, R. L. With people in mind design and management of everyday nature. 

Alexander, C., Ishikawa, S., Silverstein, M., Jacobson, M., Fiksdahl-King, I., & Angel, S. A Pattern Language: Towns, Buildings, Construction

Kellert, S. R.. The Practice of Biophilic Design. 

Interested in evidence-based design on other topics, but not sure where to look for more information? InformeDesign is a great resource for EVIDENCE-BASED DESIGN content, resources, people, and tools! Includes more than 2,400 Research Summaries to inform their design solutions.

REFERENCE list for this website

Al Horr, Y., Arif, M., Kaushik, A., Mazroei, A., Katafygiotou, M., & Elsarrag, E. (2016). Occupant productivity and office indoor environment quality: A review of the literature. Building and Environment, 105, 369–389.


Alcock, I., White, M. P., Wheeler, B. W., Fleming, L. E., & Depledge, M. H. (2014). Longitudinal Effects on Mental Health of Moving to Greener and Less Green Urban Areas. Environmental Science & Technology, 48(2), 1247–1255.


Alexander, C. (2004). The Nature of Order: An Essay on the Art of Building and the Nature of the Universe, Book 1 - The Phenomenon of Life. Berkeley, Calif: Routledge.


Allen, J. G., MacNaughton, P., Satish, U., Santanam, S., Vallarino, J., & Spengler, J. D. (2015). Associations of Cognitive Function Scores with Carbon Dioxide, Ventilation, and Volatile Organic Compound Exposures in Office Workers: A Controlled Exposure Study of Green and Conventional Office Environments. Environmental Health Perspectives.


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Annerstedt, M., Jönsson, P., Wallergård, M., Johansson, G., Karlson, B., Grahn, P., … Währborg, P. (2013). Inducing physiological stress recovery with sounds of nature in a virtual reality forest — Results from a pilot study. Physiology & Behavior, 118, 240–250.


Appleton, J. (1975). The Experience of Landscape (Revised Edition edition). Chichester ; New York: Wiley.


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Browning, W. D., Ryan, C. O., & Clancy, J. O. (2014). 14 Patterns of Biophilic Design. New York: Terrapin Bright Green llc.


Calcaterra, V., Veggiotti, P., Palestrini, C., De Giorgis, V., Raschetti, R., Tumminelli, M., … Pelizzo, G. (2015). Post-Operative Benefits of Animal-Assisted Therapy in Pediatric Surgery: A Randomised Study. PLoS ONE, 10(6), 1–13.


Choi, J., Aziz, A., & Loftness, V. (2010). Investigation on the impacts of different genders and ages on satisfaction with thermal environments in office buildings. Building and Environment, 45(6), 1529–1535.


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de Dear, R. (2011). Revisiting an old hypothesis of human thermal perception: alliesthesia. Building Research & Information, 39(2), 108–117.


de Kort, Y. A. W., Meijnders, A. L., Sponselee, A. A. G., & IJsselsteijn, W. A. (2006). What’s wrong with virtual trees? Restoring from stress in a mediated environment. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 26(4), 309–320.


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Elzeyadi, I. M. (2011). Daylighting bias and biophilia: Quantifying the impact of daylighting on occupants’ health. USGBC. Retrieved from


Engelman, S. R. (2013). Palliative Care and Use of Animal-Assisted Therapy. Omega: Journal of Death & Dying, 67(1/2), 63–67.


Felsten, G. (2009). Where to take a study break on the college campus: An attention restoration theory perspective. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 29(1), 160–167.


Friedman, B., Freier, N. G., Kahn Jr., P. H., Lin, P., & Sodeman, R. (2008). Office window of the future?—Field-based analyses of a new use of a large display. International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 66(6), 452–465.


Fritz, C., Ellis, A. M., Demsky, C. A., Lin, B. C., & Guros, F. (2013). Embracing work breaks: Recovering from work stress. Organizational Dynamics, 42(4), 274–280.


Fritz, C., Lam, C. F., & Spreitzer, G. M. (2011). It’s the Little Things That Matter: An Examination of Knowledge Workers’ Energy Management. Academy of Management Perspectives, 25(3), 28–39.


Fuller, R. A., Irvine, K. N., Devine-Wright, P., Warren, P. H., & Gaston, K. J. (2007). Psychological benefits of greenspace increase with biodiversity. Biology Letters, 3(4), 390–394.


Gatersleben, B., & Andrews, M. (2013). When walking in nature is not restorative—The role of prospect and refuge. Health & Place, 20, 91–101.


Gosling, E., & Williams, K. J. H. (2010). Connectedness to nature, place attachment and conservation behaviour: Testing connectedness theory among farmers. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 30(3), 298–304.


Grinde, B., & Patil, G. G. (2009). Biophilia: Does Visual Contact with Nature Impact on Health and Well-Being? International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 6(9), 2332–2343.


Hartig, T., Evans, G. W., Jamner, L. D., Davis, D. S., & Gärling, T. (2003). Tracking restoration in natural and urban field settings. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 23(2), 109–123.


Heerwagen, J. H. (1998). DESIGN, PRODUCTIVITY AND WELL BEING: What are the Links? In The American Institute of Architects Conference on Highly Effective Facilities (p. 23). Cincinnati, Ohio. Retrieved from


Heerwagen, J. H. (2011). Restorative Commons:  Creating Health and Well-being through Urban Landscapes. In U.S Forest Service, Northern Research Station (pp. 39–54). USDA Forest Service.


Heerwagen, J. H., & Gregory, B. (2008). Biophilia and Sensory Aesthetics. In S. R. Kellert, J. H. Heerwagen, & M. L. Mador (Eds.), Biophilic Design: The Theory, Science, and Practice of Bringing Buildings to Life (pp. 227–242). Hoboken, N.J.: Wiley.


Heschong Mahone Group. (1999, August 20). Daylighting in Schools: An Investigation into the Relationship Between Daylighting and Human Performance. California Energy Commission.


Heschong Mahone Group. (2003a, October). Windows and Classrooms: A Study of Student Performance and the Indoor Environment. California Energy Commission.


Heschong Mahone Group. (2003b, October). Windows and Offices: A Study of Office Worker Performance and the Indoor Environment. California Energy Commission.


Hildebrand, G. (2008). Biophilic Architectural Space. In S. R. Kellert, J. H. Heerwagen, & M. L. Mador (Eds.), Biophilic Design: The Theory, Science, and Practice of Bringing Buildings to Life (pp. 227–242). Hoboken, N.J.: Wiley.


Hua, Y., Loftness, V., Heerwagen, J. H., & Powell, K. M. (2011). Relationship Between Workplace Spatial Settings and Occupant-Perceived Support for Collaboration. Environment and Behavior, 43(6), 807–826.


Human Spaces. (2015). Human Spaces: The Global Impact of Biophilic Design in the Workplace. Interface. Retrieved from


Hunter, M. D., Eickhoff, S. B., Pheasant, R. J., Douglas, M. J., Watts, G. R., Farrow, T. F. D., … Woodruff, P. W. R. (2010). The state of tranquility: Subjective perception is shaped by contextual modulation of auditory connectivity. NeuroImage, 53(2), 611–618.


Jahncke, H., Hygge, S., Halin, N., Green, A. M., & Dimberg, K. (2011). Open-plan office noise: Cognitive performance and restoration. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 31(4), 373–382.


Kahn Jr., P. H., Friedman, B., Gill, B., Hagman, J., Severson, R. L., Freier, N. G., … Stolyar, A. (2008). A plasma display window?—The shifting baseline problem in a technologically mediated natural world. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 28(2), 192–199.


Kahn Jr., P. H., Severson, R. L., & Ruckert, J. H. (2009). The Human Relation With Nature and Technological Nature. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 18(1), 37–42.


Kaplan, R. (1993). The role of nature in the context of the workplace. Landscape and Urban Planning, 26(1), 193–201.


Kaplan, R., Kaplan, S., & Ryan, R. L. (1998). With people in mind design and management of everyday nature. Washington, D.C.: Island Press.


Kaplan, S. (1992). The Restorative Environment: Nature and Human Experience. In D. Relf (Ed.), The Role of Horticulture in Human Well-Being and Social Development (pp. 134–142). Portland, OR: Timber Press.


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Kellert, S. R. (2008). Dimensions, Elements, and Attributes of Biophilic Design. In S. R. Kellert, J. H. Heerwagen, & M. L. Mador (Eds.), Biophilic Design: The Theory, Science, and Practice of Bringing Buildings to Life (pp. 227–242). Hoboken, N.J.: Wiley.


Kellert, S. R. (2015). The Practice of Biophilic Design. New Haven: Yale University, School of Forestry and Environmental Studies.


Kellert, S. R., & Wilson, E. O. (1995). The Biophilia Hypothesis (Reissue edition). Covelo, Calif: Shearwater.

Kjellgren, A., & Buhrkall, H. (2010). A comparison of the restorative effect of a natural environment with that of a simulated natural environment. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 30(4), 464–472.


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Li, Q. (2010). Effect of forest bathing trips on human immune function. Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine, 15(1), 9–17.


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Mador, M. L. (2008). Water, Biophilic Design, and the Built Environment. In S. R. Kellert, J. H. Heerwagen, & M. L. Mador (Eds.),

Biophilic Design: The Theory, Science, and Practice of Bringing Buildings to Life (pp. 43–57). Hoboken, N.J.: Wiley.


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Ottosson, J., Lavesson, L., Pinzke, S., & Grahn, P. (2015). The Significance of Experiences of Nature for People with Parkinson’s Disease, with Special Focus on Freezing of Gait—The Necessity for a Biophilic Environment. A Multi-Method Single Subject Study. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 12(7), 7274–7299.


Parkinson, T., de Dear, R., & Candido, C. (2012). Perception of Transient Thermal Environments: pleasure and alliesthesia. In Windsor Conference: The changing context of comfort in an unpredictable world (Vol. 7). Retrieved from


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Ratcliffe, E., Gatersleben, B., & Sowden, P. T. (2013). Bird sounds and their contributions to perceived attention restoration and stress recovery. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 36, 221–228.


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Saadatmand, V., Rejeh, N., Heravi-Karimooi, M., Tadrisi, S. D., Zayeri, F., Vaismoradi, M., & Jasper, M. (2013). Effect of nature-based sounds’ intervention on agitation, anxiety, and stress in patients under mechanical ventilator support: A randomised controlled trial. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 50(7), 895–904.


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Salingaros, N. A. (2012). Fractal art and architecture reduce physiological stress. Journal of Biourbanism, 2(2), 11–28.


Salingaros, N. A., & Masden II, K. G. (2008). Neuroscience, the Natural Environment, and Building Design. In S. R. Kellert, J. H. Heerwagen, & M. L. Mador (Eds.), Biophilic Design: The Theory, Science, and Practice of Bringing Buildings to Life (pp. 227–242). Hoboken, N.J.: Wiley.


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